Pests and pathogens are always on the move

We designed this website to provide information about the global distribution of pests and pathogens of the western honey bee. Information regarding the distribution of a specific pest or pathogen can be found by clicking on the Pests and Pathogens tab at the top of this page. This will take you to a table containing all the pests and pathogens known to be associated with honey bees. Clicking the name of a pest or pathogen will take you to information regarding the distribution of that organism. Clicking on MAP will take you to a downloadable PDF file that contains a world map showing the distribution of that pest or pathogen. Clicking on TABLE will take you to an up-to-date table containing the countries where the organism has been found with the original reference noting the first discovery of a pest or pathogen linked.


To assure practicality for both readers and reviewers, we adopted an interactive system whereby the maps and tables provided can be updated as needed by the author team as new information becomes available. This strategy will allow for updates to the global honey bee health status as new pests/pathogens, updated nomenclature, and other changes emerge. This also allows readers/users to provide updates to us directly, updates that can include new occurrences of a pest/pathogen in a country, errors (inclusion or omission errors) in the online tables/maps, etc. The procedure for reporting updates/errors follows:

Email with the following information:

1- Your name, affiliation, and contact information (email addressed required)
2- The proposed change (omission error, inclusion error, or new country status of a disease or pest)
3- Attach a peer-reviewed manuscript or other documentation to support the change (please highlight the session where the document supports the claim).
4- Include any other information you feel is relevant.

The submitted information will be reviewed by the author team and an amendment made to the tables and/or maps as deemed appropriate. A blog will be published every time a new amendment is made.

All tables and maps are free to download and use (they are open source). High-resolution images were used to generate each map. Consequently, you can see the country status by zooming into the region or country of interest if the land area is too small to see at the whole map level. All tables, maps, and this manuscript must be cited appropriately at each use. The appropriate citation to include for maps and tables is:

Boncristiani, H., Ellis, D.J., Bustamante, T., Graham, J., Jack, C., Kimmel, C., Mortensen, A., Schmehl, D., World honey bee health: the global distribution of western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests and pathogens. Bee World.